The aim of this research is to assess the potential impact of the CO2 Performance Ladder on CO2 emission reduction. The CO2 Performance Ladder is a new green procurement scheme that has been adopted by several public authorities in the Netherlands; it is a staged certification scheme for energy and CO2 management. The achieved certification level gives companies a certain competitive advantage in contract awarding procedures. While the scheme has been widely adopted by companies in the construction industry, other types of companies in the supply chain of the commissioning parties also participate. Currently, more than 190 companies participate in the scheme. The aggregate CO2 emissions covered by the scheme are around 1.7 Mtonnes, which corresponds to almost 1 % of national greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands. Since the introduction of the scheme the total CO2 emissions have decreased substantially. Nevertheless, these emission reductions should be interpreted with caution since emission reductions are dominated by a few companies and are affected to a large extent by economic activity. Companies participating in the scheme have set different types of CO2 emission reduction targets with varying ambition levels. The projected impact of these targets on CO2 emissions is in the range of a 0.5 %-1.3 % absolute emission reduction per year, with a most likely value of 1.1 %. The CO2 Performance Ladder can therefore make a substantial contribution to achieving the CO2 emission reductions for non-ETS sectors in the Netherlands up to 2020.