Big data analytics received much attention in the last decade and is viewed as one of the next most important strategic resources for organizations. Yet, the role of employees' data literacy seems to be neglected in current literature. The aim of this study is twofold: (1) it develops data literacy as an organization competency by identifying its dimensions and measurement, and (2) it examines the relationship between data literacy and governmental performance (internal and external). Using data from a survey of 120 Dutch governmental agencies, the proposed model was tested using PLS-SEM. The results empirically support the suggested theoretical framework and corresponding measurement instrument. The results partially support the relationship of data literacy with performance as a significant effect of data literacy on internal performance. However, counter-intuitively, this significant effect is not found in relation to external performance.