Objective To explore how to build and maintain the
resilience of frontline healthcare professionals exposed to
COVID-19 outbreak working conditions.
Design Scoping review supplemented with expert
interviews to validate the findings.
Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO,
CINAHL, bioRxiv and medRxiv systematically and grey
literature for articles focusing on the impact of COVID-
working conditions on the physical and/or mental
health of healthcare professionals in a hospital setting.
Articles using an empirical design about determinants
or causes of physical and/or mental health and about
interventions, measures and policies to preserve physical
and/or mental health were included. Four experts were
interviewed to reflect on the results from the scoping
Results In total, 4471 records were screened leading
to an inclusion of 73 articles. Recommendations prior
to the outbreak fostering resilience included optimal
provision of education and training, resilience training
and interventions to create a feeling of being prepared.
Recommendations during the outbreak consisted of (1)
enhancing resilience by proper provision of information,
psychosocial support and treatment (eg, create enabling
conditions such as forming a psychosocial support
team), monitoring the health status of professionals and
using various forms and content of psychosocial support
(eg, encouraging peer support, sharing and celebrating
successes), (2) tasks and responsibilities, in which
attention should be paid to kind of tasks, task mix and
responsibilities as well as the intensity and weight of
these tasks and (3) work patterns and working conditions.
Findings of the review were validated by experts.
Conclusions Recommendations were developed on how
to build and maintain resilience of frontline healthcare
professionals exposed to COVID-19 outbreak working
conditions. These practical and easy to implement
recommendations can be used by hospitals and other
healthcare organisations to foster and preserve short-term
physical and mental health and
employability of their professionals.