From Pubmed: "
Antigen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) is a promising therapeutic approach for both cow's milk allergy (CMA) and peanut allergy (PNA), but needs optimization in terms of efficacy and safety.
Compare oral immunotherapy (OIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) in murine models for CMA and PNA and determine the dose of allergen needed to effectively modify parameters of allergy.
Female C3H/HeOuJ mice were sensitized intragastrically (i.g.) to whey or peanut extract with cholera toxin. Mice were treated orally (5 times/week) or subcutaneously (3 times/week) for three consecutive weeks. Hereafter, the acute allergic skin response, anaphylactic shock symptoms and body temperature were measured upon intradermal (i.d.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge, and mast cell degranulation was measured upon i.g. challenge. Allergen-specific IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were measured in serum at different time points. Single cell suspensions derived from lymph organs were stimulated with allergen to induce cytokine production and T cell phenotypes were assessed using flow cytometry.
Both OIT and SCIT decreased clinically related signs upon challenge in the CMA and PNA model. Interestingly, a rise in allergen-specific IgE was observed during immunotherapy, hereafter, treated mice were protected against the increase in IgE caused by allergen challenge. Allergen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a increased due to both types of AIT. In the CMA model, SCIT and OIT reduced the percentage of activated Th2 cells and increased the percentage of activated Th1 cells in the spleen. OIT increased the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and activated Th2 cells in the MLN. Th2 cytokines IL-5, IL-13 and IL-10 were reduced after OIT, but not after SCIT. In the PNA model, no differences were observed in percentages of T cell subsets. SCIT induced Th2 cytokines IL-5 and IL-10, whereas OIT had no effect.
We have shown clinical protection against allergic manifestations after OIT and SCIT in a CMA and PNA model. Although similar allergen-specific antibody patterns were observed, differences in T cell and cytokine responses were shown. Whether these findings are related to a different mechanism of AIT in CMA and PNA needs to be elucidated."