From the introduction:
In the Netherlands alone the potential of the circular economy for the economy is estimated at an annual cost saving effect of 7.3 billion Euros and job creation of 54,000 jobs (Bastein et al. 2013). However this potential needs to be used in applied solutions in often local settings such as cities. Cities are reliant on local development for their employment, business activity, and reduction of energy consumption, waste and air pollution in the city. In these areas cities feel more and more pressure and they set high ambitions.
Last few years particularly cities have restrained the entering of polluting
vehicles and improving the inner-city climate and air quality in general. Particularly construction transport is relevant to this aim while typically 30–40% of all transport is related to construction traditionally. This represents some 40% of vehicle emissions and road congestions. Governments and road users are keen to reduce this. While load factors of construction transport tend to remain structurally under 50%, in few cases down to 15% of their loading capacity a need to act is felt urgently (Vrijhoef 2015).
Another aim of the circular economy city is that waste is re-used from demolished buildings into new design solutions for the built environment. To establish this circular city, there is a need of information on various levels in an open source structure. Examples of such data need can be, where and when is what kind of building material needed, and where can building materials be gained by demolishing buildings? For these kinds of questions, a smart 3D city model is proposed.This model should contain various types of intelligences, like GIS-BIM integration and real time and modelled environmental data. The combination of data creates new, innovative possibilities for the built environment (Heere et al. 2016).
The conference took place in 2016, december 14th, the proceedings and this paper were published, 2017, November 25th :