Kinetics of Physiological Responses as a Measure of Intensity and Hydration Status During Experimental Physical Stress in Human Volunteers

Authors Shirley Kartaram , Klaske van Norren , Eric Schoen , Marc Teunis , Marco Mensink , Martie Verschuren , Laura M'Rabet , Isolde Besseling-van der Vaart , Karin Mohrmann , Harriët Wittink , Johan Garssen , Renger Witkamp , Raymond Pieters
Published in Frontiers in Physiology
Publication date 4 September 2020
Research groups Innovative Testing in Life Sciences and Chemistry
Type Article

Summary

Introduction: Strenuous physical stress induces a range of physiological responses, the extent depending, among others, on the nature and severity of the exercise, a person’s training level and overall physical resilience. This principle can also be used in an experimental set-up by measuring time-dependent changes in biomarkers for physiological processes. In a previous report, we described the effects of workload delivered on a bicycle ergometer on intestinal functionality. As a follow-up, we here describe an analysis of the kinetics of various other biomarkers. Aim: To analyse the time-dependent changes of 34 markers for different metabolic and immunological processes, comparing four different exercise protocols and a rest protocol. Methods: After determining individual maximum workloads, 15 healthy male participants (20–35 years) started with a rest protocol and subsequently performed (in a cross-over design with 1-week wash-out) four exercise protocols of 1-h duration at different intensities: 70% Wmax in a hydrated and a mildly dehydrated state, 50% Wmax and intermittent 85/55% Wmax in blocks of 2 min. Perceived exertion was monitored using the Borg’ Rating of Perceived Exertion scale. Blood samples were collected both before and during exercise, and at various timepoints up to 24 h afterward. Data was analyzed using a multilevel mixed linear model with multiple test correction. Results: Kinetic changes of various biomarkers were exercise-intensity-dependent. Biomarkers included parameters indicative of metabolic activity (e.g., creatinine, bicarbonate), immunological and hematological functionality (e.g., leukocytes, hemoglobin) and intestinal physiology (citrulline, intestinal fatty acid-binding protein, and zonulin). In general, responses to high intensity exercise of 70% Wmax and intermittent exercise i.e., 55/85% Wmax were more pronounced compared to exercise at 50% Wmax. Conclusion: High (70 and 55/85% Wmax) and moderate (50% Wmax) intensity exercise in a bicycle ergometer test produce different time-dependent changes in a broad range of parameters indicative of metabolic activity, immunological and hematological functionality and intestinal physiology. These parameters may be considered biomarkers of homeostatic resilience. Mild dehydration intensifies these time-related changes. Moderate intensity exercise of 50% Wmax shows sufficient physiological and immunological responses and can be employed to test the health condition of less fit individuals.

researchcomponents.publicationcontent.personslist.publicationauthors

  • Shirley Kartaram | Researcher | Research group Innovative Testing in Life Sciences and Chemistry
    Shirley Kartaram
    • Researcher
    • Research groups: Innovative Testing in Life Sciences and Chemistry
  • Marc Teunis | Researcher | Research group Innovative Testing in Life Sciences and Chemistry
    Marc Teunis
    • Researcher
    • Research groups: Innovative Testing in Life Sciences and Chemistry
  • Harriët Wittink | Professor | Lifestyle and Health
    Harriët Wittink
    • Professor
    • Research groups: Lifestyle and Health
  • Raymond Pieters | Professor | Research group Innovative Testing in Life Sciences & Chemistry
    Raymond Pieters
    • Professor
    • Research groups: Innovative Testing in Life Sciences and Chemistry

Language English
Published in Frontiers in Physiology
Year and volume 11 1006
Key words kinetics, biomarkers, exercise intensity, resilience, dehydration, physiological responses

Shirley Kartaram

Shirley Kartaram | Researcher | Research group Innovative Testing in Life Sciences and Chemistry

Shirley Kartaram

  • Researcher
  • Research group: Innovative Testing in Life Sciences and Chemistry