Measuring numeracy skills mismatch with PIAAC data

Authors Tina Dulam, Kees Hoogland
Publication date 2022
Research groups Mathematical and analytical competence of professionals
Type Lecture


We assess the incidence of numeracy skills mismatch in five countries: Belgium, Chile, Italy, Netherlands, and the United States of America. To do this, we make use of a new approach (Brun-Schamme & Rey, 2021), namely by identifying someone as being mismatched if the score for numeracy skills is outside the interval [median – SD , median + SD]. We make use of the PIAAC dataset, collected by the OECD, a survey that measures adults’ proficiency in numeracy among other type of skills. We find that 14% of the workers are over-skilled, whereas 16% are under-skilled. Being over-skilled is more likely for men, younger age-groups, having a high level of education, using numeracy skills often at work, and having studied science, mathematics, and engineering.

On this publication contributed

  • Kees Hoogland
    • Professor
    • Research group: Mathematical and analytical competence of professionals

Language English
Key words numeracy, skills mismatch, over-skilled, under-skilled, occupations