Objective: To study the effects of a comprehensive secondary prevention programme on weight loss and to identify determinants of weight change in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods: We performed a secondary analysis focusing on the subgroup of overweight CAD patients (BMI ≥27 kg/m2) in the Randomised Evaluation of Secondary Prevention by Outpatient Nurse SpEcialists-2 (RESPONSE-2) multicentre randomised trial. We evaluated weight change from baseline to 12-month follow-up; multivariable logistic regression with backward elimination was used to identify determinants of weight change.
Results: Intervention patients (n=280) lost significantly more weight than control patients (n=257) (-2.4±7.1 kg vs -0.2±4.6 kg; p<0.001). Individual weight change varied widely, with weight gain (≥1.0 kg) occurring in 36% of interventions versus 41% controls (p=0.21). In the intervention group, weight loss of ≥5% was associated with higher age (OR 2.94), lower educational level (OR 1.91), non-smoking status (OR 2.92), motivation to start with weight loss directly after the baseline visit (OR 2.31) and weight loss programme participation (OR 3.33), whereas weight gain (≥1 kg) was associated with smoking cessation ≤6 months before or during hospitalisation (OR 3.21), non-Caucasian ethnicity (OR 2.77), smoking at baseline (OR 2.70), lower age (<65 years) (OR 1.47) and weight loss programme participation (OR 0.59).
Conclusion: The comprehensive secondary prevention programme was, on average, effective in achieving weight loss. However, wide variation was observed. As weight gain was observed in over one in three participants in both groups, prevention of weight gain may be as important as attempts to lose weight.